Origen’s trichotomic anthropology


Abstract

Origen was one of the greatest biblical scholars of the early Church, having written commentaries on most of the books of the Bible. He recognized great au­thority of the scripture. In anthropology he gave attention to the text of saint Paul: “May the God who gives us peace make you holy in every way and keep your whole being – spirit, soul, and body – free from every fault at the coming of our Lord Jesus Christ” (1Thess 5:23). According to this text Origen recognized in hu­man being three elements. He tried to unite trichotomy with a concept of division of human being into two parts: interior and exterior man. Spirit in this concept is soul’s teacher and a special form of participation in the divine being. In a sense spirit is ontological image of God in man and for man it is impossible to lose it. Soul is the center of man in which he makes decisions. Soul was originally cre­ated in close proximity to God, with the intention that it should explore the divine mysteries in a state of endless contemplation. The body unites man with the whole created world and gives him material aspect. Origen’s anthropology is very com­plicated but more dynamic then static division on body and soul. If the soul is go­ing to spirit, it become more spiritual, otherwise if the soul is close to the body, it become more materialistic. In this view without any doubt the human soul is posed between spirit and body and is able to acquiesce the desires of spirit but is able to let itself to be led by carnal desires, too. According to Origen man is body, because is creature, which dies, but through the body is able to communicate with mate­rial world. Man is soul because lives and is able to choose. Man is spirit because is open to God and is able to recognize and love God. Trichotomic anthropology shows that ontological and moral aspects of human being permeate each other and it demonstrates the interior drama and struggle, which always exists in man.


Keywords

Origen; trichotomic anthropology; man; image of God; soul

Augustinus, Enarrationes in Ps. 83, 11, ed. D.E. Dekkers – I. Frainpont, CCL 39, Turnholti 1956
Balthasar H.U. von, Wstęp, w: Orygenes, Duch i ogień, red. H.U. von Balthasar, tłum. S. Ka-linkowski, BOK 4, Kraków – Warszawa 1995
Benedykt XVI, Ojcowie Kościoła. Od Klemensa Rzymskiego do Augustyna, Poznań 2008
Clemens Alexandrinus, Stromata
Crouzel H., Orygenes, tłum. J. Margański, Kraków 2004
Evdokimov P., Prawosławie, Warszawa 2003
Gregorius Nazianzenus, Carmina
Grillmeier A., Gesù il Cristo nella fede della Chiesa. Dall’età apostolica al concilio di Calcedonia (451), Brescia 1982
Kaczmarek S., Darowanie win. Orygenesowa egzegeza przypowieści o nielitościwym dłużniku (Mt 18, 23-35) i wezwania Modlitwy Pańskiej (Mt 6, 12; Łk 11, 4) wraz z jej uzupełnieniem (Mt 6, 14-15), Kraków 2005
Lieske A., Die Theologie des Logosmystik bei Origenes, Münster 1938
Lubac H. de, Histoire et Esprit. L’inteligence de l’Écriture d’après Origène, Paris 1950
Lubac H. De, Theo¬logy in history, San Francisco 1996
Łosski W., Teologia mistyczna Kościoła wschodniego, Kraków 2007
Origenes, Commentarii in Ioannem
Origenes, Commentarii in Matthaeum, PG 13, 1453, tłum. K. Augustyniak, ŹMT 10, Kraków 1998
Origenes, Contra Celsum, ed. M. Borret, SCh 150, Paris 1969, 282, tłum. S. Kalinkowski: Orygenes, Przeciw Celsusowi, Warszawa 1986
Origenes, De principiis, PG 11, 320, tłum. S. Kalinkowski, ŹMT 1, Kraków 1996
Origenes, Disputatio cum Heracleida 7, ed. J. Scherer, SCh 67, Paris 1960, 70, 14-18, tłum. A. Zajkowski: Origenes, Dyskusja z Heraklidesem, STV 5 (1967) z. 2
Origenes, Fragmenta e catenis in Epistulam primam ad Corinthios, BOK 4
Origenes, Fragmenta in Matthaeum, ed. E. Klostermann – E. Benz, GCS 41/1, Leipzig 1941
Origenes, In Canticum canticorum homiliam, PG 13, 40-41, tłum. S. Kalinkowski, w: Orygenes, Komentarz do Pieśni nad Pieśniami; Homilie o Pieśni nad Pieśniami, Kraków 1994
Origenes, In Genesim homiliam, red. L. Doutreleau, SCh 7bis, Paris 1956, 56-58, tłum. S. Kalinkowski, PSP 31/1, Warszawa 1984
Origenes, In Leviticum homiliam, PG 14, 414, tłum. S. Kalinkowski, PSP 31/2, Warszawa 1984
Origenes, Libri in Psalmos 64, 3, PG 12, 1493, BOK 4
Sfameni Gasparro G., Corpo, w: Origene. Dizionario. La cultura, il pensiero, le opere, ed. A. Monaci Castagno, Roma 2000
Simonetti M., Między dosłownością a alegorią, tłum. T. Skibiński, Kraków 2000
Składanowski M., Ciało. Dusza. Duch. Myśl Ratzingera na tle współczesnej antropologii, Warszawa 2013
Špidlik T., Duchowość chrześcijańskiego wschodu, tłum. L. Rodziewicz, Kraków 2005
Špidlik T. – Gargano I., La spiritualità dei Padri greci e orientali, Roma 1983
Szram M., Ciało zmartwychwstałe w myśli patrystycznej przełomu II i III wieku, Lublin 2010
Szram M., Od obrazu do podobieństwa Bożego. Dynamiczna koncepcja antropologii teologicznej w II-III wieku, VoxP 22 (2002) t. 42-43
Swieżawski S., Dzieje europejskiej filozofii klasycznej, Warszawa – Wrocław 2000
Zieliński J., Jerozolima, Ateny, Aleksandria. Greckie źródła pierwszych nurtów filozofii chrześcijańskiej, Wrocław 2000

Published : 2015-07-15


Turzyński, P. (2015). Origen’s trichotomic anthropology. Vox Patrum, 63, 35-46. https://doi.org/10.31743/vp.3545

Piotr Turzyński 




Most read articles by the same author(s)