The Hemorrhaging Woman and Jairus’ Daughter as Representatives of Israel. An Attempt at the Symbolic Reading of Mark 5:21-43


Abstrakt

The scope of the present study is the symbolic analysis of the two interwoven Markan narratives about the healing of the woman with the flow of blood (5:25-34) and the raising of Jairus’ daughter (5:21-24.35-43). The principal thesis of this work consists in interpreting both women as symbols of Israel. The study begins with the presentation of the methodological premises of symbolic analysis. The main methodological premise of this work is the conviction that the literary sense of this pericope is in fact imbued with symbolism. Then there is a presentation of three criteria which help in detecting symbols in the biblical text: textual probability, conventions probability and contextual probability. Subsequently, in order to lend credence to the principal thesis of the article, seventeen literary elements found in Mark 5:21-43 are discussed; each of them meets the first two criteria and lends itself to symbolic interpretation of the two women as representations of Israel. The cumulative weight of these seventeen elements creates a rather strong cumulative argument in favor of the main thesis. Finally, the conformity between the symbolic interpretation of these women and both the immediate and global contexts of this pericope is discussed. The presence of this conformity meets the third criterion of contextual probability. The article thus offers a convincing case for the symbolic interpretation of the hemorrhaging woman and Jairus’ daughter in Mark 5:21-43 as representations of Israel.


Słowa kluczowe

Mark 5:21-43; symbol; symbolic exegesis; symbolism of the number twelve; Israel; Jairus; the hemorrhaging woman

Barton, B.B., Mark (Life Application Bible Commentary; Wheaton, IL: Tyndale House Publishers 1994).
Bauckham, R., Jesus and the Eyewitnesses. The Gospels as Eyewitness Testimony. Second Edition (Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans 2017).
Beavis M.A., “Women as Models of Faith in Mark”, Biblical Theology Bulletin 18 (1988) 3-9.
Beavis, M.A., Mark (Paideia; Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Academic 2011).
Brooks, J.A., Mark (NAC 23; Nashville, TN: Broadman & Holman 1991).
Cranfield, C.E.B., The Gospel according to Saint Mark. An Introduction and Commentary (Cambridge, U.K. – New York, NY: Cambridge University Press 1963).
D’Angelo, M.R., “Gender and Power in the Gospel of Mark: The Daughter of Jairus and the Woman with the Flow of Blood”, Miracles in Ancient Judaism and Christianity: Imagining Truth (ed. J.C. Cavadini) (Notre Dame, IN: University of Notre Dame Press 1999) 83-109.
D’Angelo, M.R., “Power, Knowledge and the Bodies of Women in Mark 5:21-43”, The Woman with the Blood Flow (Mark 5,24-34). Narrative, Iconic, and Anthropological Spaces (ed. B. Baert) (Art & Religion 2; Leuven & Walpole, MA: Peeters 2014) 81-106.
Dean-Jones, L., Women’s Bodies in Classical Greek Science (Oxford: Clarendon 1994).
Derrett, J.D.M., “Mark’s Technique: The Haemorrhaging Woman and Jairus’ Daughter”, Biblica 63/4 (1982) 474-505.
Derrett, J.D.M., “Why and How Jesus Walked on the Sea”, J.D.M. Derrett, Studies in the New Testament. Volume Four: Midrash, the Composition of Gospels, and Discipline (Leiden: Brill 1986) 92-110.
Edwards, D.R., “Dress and Ornamentation”, The Anchor Bible Dictionary (ed. D.N. Freedman) (New York, NY: Doubleday 1992) II, 232-238.
Fander, M., “Das Evangelium nach Markus. Frauen als wahre Nachfolgerinnen Jesu”, Kompendium Feministische Bibelauslegung (ed. L. Schottroff – M.-T. Wacker) (Gütersloh: Gütersloher Verlagshaus Gerd Mohn 1999) 499-512.
Flemming, R., Medicine and the Making of Roman Women: Gender, Nature, and Authority from Celsus to Galen (New York, NY: Oxford University Press 2000).
Gasparro, L., Simbolo e narrazione in Marco. La dimensione simbolica del secondo Vangelo alla luce della pericope del fico di Mc 11,12-25 (AnBib 198; Roma: Gregorian & Biblical Press 2012).
Girard, M., Symboles bibliques, langage universel: pour une théologie des deux Testaments ancrée dans les sciences humaines (Montréal: Médiaspaul 2016).
Guelich, R.A., Mark 1–8:26 (WBC 34A; Dallas, TX: Word Books 1989).
Gundry, R.H., Mark. A Commentary on His Apology for the Cross (Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans 1993).
Haas, J.A.W., Annotations on the Gospel according to St. Mark (New York, NY: The Christian Literature 1895).
Haber, S., “A Woman’s Touch: Feminist Encounters with the Hemorrhaging Woman in Mark 5.24-34”, Journal for the Study of the New Testament 26 (2003) 171-192.
Hooker, M.D., The Gospel according to Saint Mark (Black’s New Testament Commentary; London: Continuum 1991).
Horsley, R.A., Hearing the Whole Story: The Politics of Plot in Mark’s Gospel (Louisville, KY: Westminster John Knox Press 2001).
Hurtado, L.W., Mark (Understanding the Bible Commentary Series; Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Books 2011).
Kotansky, R.D., “Jesus and Heracles in Cádiz (τὰ Γάδειρα): Death, Myth, and Monsters at the ‘Strait of Gibraltar’ (Mark 4:35-5:43)”, Ancient and Modern Perspectives on the Bible and Culture: Essays in Honor of Hans Dieter Betz (ed. A. Yarbro Collins) (Atlanta, PA: Scholars 1998) 160-229.
Kotansky, R.D., “Jesus and the Lady of the Abyss (Mark 5:25-34). Hieros Gamos, Cosmogony, and the Elixir of Life”, Antiquity and Humanity. Essays on Ancient Religion and Philosophy. Presented to Hans Dieter Betz on His 70th Birthday (ed. A. Yarbro Collins – M.M. Mitchell) (Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck 2001) 77-120.
Kubiś, A., “The Poor Widow’s Mites. A Contextual Reading of Mark 12:41-44”, The Biblical Annals 3 (2013) 339-381.
Lagrange, M.-J., Évangile selon Saint Marc (ÉtB 10; Paris: Gabalda 1947).
LaVerdiere E., The Beginning of the Gospel. Introducing the Gospel according to Mark. I. Mark 1–8:21 (Collegeville, MN: Liturgical Press 1999).
Léon-Dufour, X., “Structure et function du récit de miracle”, Les miracles de Jésus selon le Nouveau Testament (ed. X. Léon-Dufour) (Parole de Dieu 16; Paris: Seuil 1977) 289-353.
Léon-Dufour, X., Études d’Évangile (Parole de Dieu 2; Paris: Seuil 1965).
Lettsome, R.S., “Mark”, Fortress Commentary on the Bible. The New Testament (ed. M. Aymer – C.B. Kittredge – D.A. Sánchez) (Minneapolis, MN: Fortress 2014) 173-215.
Levine, A.-J., “Discharging Responsibility: Matthean Jesus, Biblical Law, and Hemorrhaging Woman”, Treasures Old and New: Recent Contributions to Matthean Studies (ed. D.R. Bauer – M.A. Powell) (SBL.SS 1; Atlanta, GA: Scholars 1996) 379-397.
Malbon, E.S., “Fallible Followers. Women and Men in the Gospel of Mark”, Semeia 28 (1983) 29-48.
Malbon, E.S., “The Jewish Leaders in the Gospel of Mark: A Literary Study of Marcan Characterization”, Journal of Biblical Literature 108 (1989) 259-281.
Malina, B.J. – Rohrbaugh, R.L., Social-Science Commentary on the Synoptic Gospels. Second Edition (Minneapolis, MN: Fortress 2003).
Marcus, J., Mark 1–8. A New Translation with Introduction and Commentary (AncB 27; New York, NY: Doubleday 2000).
Mateos, J. – Camacho, F., Il vangelo di Marco. Analisi linguistica e comment esegetico (Lettura del Nuovo Testamento 1; Assisi: Cittadella 1997).
Meier, J.P., A Marginal Jew. Rethinking the Historical Jesus. II. Mentor, Message, and Miracles (AncBL; New York, NY: Doubleday 1994).
Milgrom, J., Leviticus 1–16. A New Translation with Introduction and Commentary (AncB 3; New York, NY: Doubleday 1991).
Montanari, F., The Brill Dictionary of Ancient Greek (Leiden – Boston, MA: Brill 2015).
Moss, C.R. – Baden, J.S., Reconceiving Infertility. Biblical Perspectives on Procreation and Childlessness (Princeton, NJ – Oxford, U.K.: Princeton University Press 2015).
Osborne, G.R., Mark (Teach the Text Commentary Series; Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Books 2014).
Pesch, R., “Kleinere Beiträge: Jaïrus (Mk 5,22 / Lk 8,41)”, Biblische Zeitschrift 14 (1970) 252-256.
Piwowar, A., “Respect for the Doctor (Sir 38:1-3)”, The Biblical Annals 10/1 (2020) 31-62.
Pliny the Elder, Natural History. Volume II: Books 3–7 (transl. H. Rackham) (LCL 352; Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press 1961).
Plummer, A.A., The Gospel according to Mark (Cambridge Greek Testament for Schools and Colleges; Cambridge: Cambridge University Press 1914).
Rees, T., “Barren, Barrenness”, The International Standard Bible Encyclopedia. Fully Revised (ed. G.W. Bromiley) (Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans 1979) I, 432-433.
Reinhartz, A., “Why ask my name?” Anonymity and Identity in Biblical Narrative (Oxford: Oxford University Press 1998).
Sabin, M.N., “The Gospel according to Mark”, The New Collegeville Bible Commentary. New Testament (ed. D. Durken) (Collegeville, MN: Liturgical Press 2009) 91-214.
Schnabel, E.J., Mark: An Introduction and Commentary (Tyndale New Testament Commentaries 2; London: Inter-Varsity Press 2017).
Schrage, W., “συναγωγή κτλ.”, Theological Dictionary of the New Testament (ed. G. Kittel – G. Friedrich) (Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans 1971) VII, 798-852.
Standaert, B., Évangile selon Marc. Commentarie. Première partie. Marc 1, 1 à 6, 13 (ÉtB 61; Pendé: Gabalda 2010).
Stein, R.H., Mark (BECNT; Grand Rapids, MI, Baker Academic 2008).
Tack, L.G., “Cleansed in the Wine of the Passion. On the Role of Jesus’ Garment in the Story of the Haemorrhaging Woman”, The Woman with the Blood Flow (Mark 5,24-34). Narrative, Iconic, and Anthropological Spaces (ed. B. Baert) (Art & Religion 2; Leuven & Walpole, MA: Peeters 2014) 51-80.
Taylor, V., The Gospel according to St. Mark, 2nd ed. (London: Macmillan 1966).
Telford, W.R., The Theology of the Gospel of Mark (New Testament Theology; Cambridge: Cambridge University Press 1999).
Theissen, G., The Gospel in Context: Social and Political History in the Synoptic Tradition (Minneapolis, MN: Fortress 1991).
Tolbert, M.A., “Mark”, Women’s Bible Commentary. Expanded Edition (ed. C.A. Newsom – S.H. Ringe) (Louisville, KY: Westminster John Knox Press 1998) 350-362.
Trainor, M.R., The Quest for Home. The Household in Mark’s Community (Collegeville, MN: Liturgical Press 2001).
Watts, R.E., Isaiah’s New Exodus in Mark (Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Academic 2000).
Witherington B., The Gospel of Mark. A Socio-Rhetorical Commentary (Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans 2001)
Yarbro Collins, A., Mark. A Commentary (Hermeneia; Minneapolis, MN: Fortress 2007).

Opublikowane : 2020-05-17


Kubiś, A. (2020). The Hemorrhaging Woman and Jairus’ Daughter as Representatives of Israel. An Attempt at the Symbolic Reading of Mark 5:21-43. The Biblical Annals, 10(3), 355-387. https://doi.org/10.31743/biban.9313

Adam Kubiś  akubis@gmail.com
Katolicki Uniwersytet Lubelski Jana Pawła II  Polska
https://orcid.org/0000-0003-4961-2254




1. Zgodnie z ustawą o prawie autorskim i prawach pokrewnych z dnia 4 lutego 1994r., autor publikacji przekazuje autorskie prawa majątkowe dotyczące składanego dzieła wydawcy czasopisma the Biblical Annals. Przeniesienie praw autorskich do składanego dzieła następuje na wszystkich polach eksploatacji, w szczególności tych wymienionych w art. 50 ustawy o prawie autorskim i prawach pokrewnych:

  • W zakresie utrwalania i zwielokrotniania utworu – wytwarzanie określoną techniką egzemplarzy dzieła, w tym techniką drukarską, reprograficzną, zapisu magnetycznego oraz techniką cyfrową.
  • W zakresie obrotu oryginałem albo egzemplarzami , na których dzieło utrwalono – wprowadzanie do obrotu, użyczenie lub najem oryginału albo egzemplarzy.
  • W zakresie rozpowszechniania utworu w sposób inny niż określony w pkt. 2 – publiczne wykonanie, wystawienie, wyświetlenie, odtworzenie oraz nadawanie i reemitowanie, a także publiczne udostępnianie utworu, aby każdy mógł mieć do niego dostęp w miejscu i czasie przez siebie wybranym.

2. Za zgodą redakcji czasopisma opublikowane artykuły w Biblical Annals mogą być przedrukowywane w innych publikacjach.

3. Redakcja publikuje teksty on line na licencji Creative Commons Uznanie autorstwa-Bez utworów zależnych 3.0 PL.