The Alleged Reference to the Tripartite Division of Jewish Law in 4QMMT

Michał Jarosław Klukowski

Katolicki Uniwersytet Lubelski Jana Pawła II , Polska

Abstrakt

The article discusses Elisha Qimron’s suggestion that the syntagm חוק ומשפט וטהרה (B 52 = 4Q394 8 IV,2; 4Q396 1–2 II,3-4) from 4QMMT indicated the tripartite division of Jewish law in the understanding of the Qumran community. The first part presents the context of the use of חוק ומשפט וטהרה in 4QMMT, and briefly analyses the use of each of these terms in the literature of the Second Temple Period. The second part raises arguments refuting E. Qimron’s idea and proposes an alternative meaning of חוק ומשפט וטהרה.

Słowa kluczowe:

4QMMT B 52, Jewish Law, ḥôq wȗmišpāṭ, ṭohŏrāh

Altshuler, D., “On the Classification of Judaic Laws in the Antiquities of Josephus and the Temple Scroll of Qumran,” The Association for Jewish Studies Review 7/8 (1982/1983) 1–14. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/S0364009400000635

Auld, A.G., I & II Samuel (Old Testament Library; Louisville, KY: Westminster John Knox 2011).

Baumgarten, J.M., “The ‘Halakha’ in Miqṣat Maʿase ha-Torah (MMT),” Journal of the American Oriental Society 116 (1996) 512–516. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2307/605153

Bernstein, M.J., “The Employment and Interpretation of Scripture in 4QMMT: Preliminary Observations”Reading 4QMMT. New Perspectives on Qumran Law and History (eds. J. Kampen – M.J. Bernstein) (Symposium Series 2; Atlanta, GA: Scholar Press 1996) 29–51.

Berthelot, K., “4QMMT et la question du canon de la Bible hébraïque,” From 4QMMT to Resurrection. Mélanges qumrâniens en hommage à Émile Puech (eds. F. García Martínez – A. Steudel – E.J.C. Tigchelaar) (Studies on the Texts of the Desert of Judah 61; Leiden: Brill 2006) 1–14. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1163/9789047410287_002

Brooke, G.J., “The Explicit Presentation of Scripture in 4QMMT,” Legal Texts and Legal Issues. Proceedings of the Second Meeting of the International Organization for Qumran Studies, Cambridge 1995. Published in Honour of Joseph M. Baumgarten (eds. J. Kampen – M.J. Bernstein – F. García Martínez) (Studies on the Texts of the Desert of Judah 23; Leiden: Brill 1997) 67–88. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1163/9789004350250_s012

Campbell, J.G., “4QMMTd and the Tripartite Canon,” Journal of Jewish Studies 51 (2000) 181–190. DOI: https://doi.org/10.18647/2272/JJS-2000

Clines, D.J.A. (ed.), The Dictionary of Classical Hebrew. III. Zayin–Teth (Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press 1996).

Cohen, B., “The Classification of the Law in the Mishneh Torah,” The Jewish Quarterly Review 25/4 (1935) 519–540. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2307/1452438

Culver, R.D., “ שפט ,” Theological Wordbook of the Old Testament. II. Nun – Taw (eds. R.L. Harris – G.L. Archer, Jr. – B.K. Waltke) (Chicago, IL: Moody Press 1981) 947–949.

Evans, C.A., “The Dead Sea Scrolls and the Canon of Scripture in the Time of Jesus,” The Bible at Qumran. Text, Shape and Interpretation (ed. P.W. Flint) (Studies in the Dead Sea Scrolls and Related Literature 5; Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans 2001) 67–79.

Grabbe, L.L., Ezra–Nehemiah (Old Testament Readings; London: Routledge 1998).

Hamilton, V.P., Exodus. An Exegetical Commentary (Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Academic Press 2011).

Harrington, H.K., “Holiness in the Laws of 4QMMT,” Legal Texts and Legal Issues. Proceedings of the Second Meeting of the International Organization for Qumran Studies, Cambridge 1995. Published in Honour of Joseph M. Baumgarten (eds. M.J. Bernstein – J. Kampen – F. García Martínez) (Studies on the Texts of the Desert of Judah 23; Leiden: Brill 1997) 109–130. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1163/9789004350250_s014

Harrington, H.K., “What is the Semantic Field of the Lexemes טהר and טמא in the Dead Sea Scrolls?,” Revue de Qumrân 24/1 (2009) 97–114.

Hess, R.S., Joshua. An Introduction and Commentary (Tyndale Old Testament Commentaries 6; Leicester: IVP 1996).

Jastrow, M., Dictionary of Targumim, Talmud Babli and Yerushalmi, and Midrashic Literature (London: Luzac 1903) I–II.

Johnson, B., „ משפט ,” Theological Dictionary of the Old Testament. IX. Mem – Nun (eds. G.J. Botterweck – H. Ringgren) (Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans 1998) 86–98.

Johnstone, W., Exodus 1–19 (Smyth & Helwys Bible commentary 2A; Macon, GA: Smyth & Helwys 2014).

Koehler, L. – Baumgartner, W. – Stamm, J.J. (eds.), The Hebrew and Aramaic Lexicon of the Old Testament (Leiden – New York – Köln: Brill 1994) I–II.

Kratz, R.G., “Mose und die Propheten: zur Interpretation von 4QMMT C,” From 4QMMT to Resurrection. Mélanges qumraniens en hommage à Émile Puech (eds. F. García Martínez – A. Steudel – E.J.C. Tigchelaar) (Studies on the Texts of the Desert of Judah 61; Leiden: Brill 2006) 151–176. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1163/9789047410287_010

Kratz, R.G., “‘The Place which He has Chosen’: The Identification of the Cult Place of Deut. 12 and Lev. 17 in 4QMMT,” Meghillot 5–6 (2007) 57–80.

Kugler, R.A. – Baek, K. S., Leviticus at Qumran. Text and Interpretation (Supplements to Vetus Testamentum 173; Leiden: Brill 2017). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1163/9789004329850

Lewis, J.P., “ חקק ,” Theological Wordbook of the Old Testament. I. ‘Aleph – Mem (eds. R.L. Harris – G.L. Archer, Jr. – B.K. Waltke) (Chicago, IL: Moody Press 1980) 316–318.

Lim, T.H., “The Alleged Reference to the Tripartite Division of the Hebrew Bible,” Revue de Qumrân 20 (2001) 23–37.

Lim, T.H., “Authoritative Scriptures and the Dead Sea Scrolls,” The Oxford Handbook of the Dead Sea Scrolls (eds. J.J. Collins – T.H. Lim) (Oxford: Oxford University Press 2010) 303–322. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/oxfordhb/9780199207237.003.0013

Milgrom, J., Leviticus 23–27. A New Translation with Introduction and Commentary (Anchor Bible 3B; New York: Doubleday 2001). DOI: https://doi.org/10.5040/9780300261127

Moses ben Maimon, Mishneh Torah (ed. E. Touger) (New York: Moznaim 2000, 1 ed. 1180).

Moses ben Maimon, Sefer ha-Mitzvot (Warsaw: Goldman 1883, 1 ed. 1497).

Novick, T., “Overt Acknowledgement of Practical Considerations in Legal Texts from Qumran,” Dead Sea Discoveries 21 (2014) 64–81. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1163/15685179-12341288

Pitkänen, P., Joshua (Apollos Old Testament Commentary 6; Nottingham: Apollos 2010).

Qimron, E., – Strugnell, J., Qumran Cave 4. V. Miqsat Maʿaśe ha-Torah (DJD 10; Oxford: Clarendon 1994).

Ringgren, H., “ חקק ,” Theological Dictionary of the Old Testament. V. He – Yod (eds. G.J. Botterweck – H. Ringgren) (Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans 1986) 139–147.

Ringgren, H., “ טהר ,” Theological Dictionary of the Old Testament. V. He – Yod (eds. G.J. Botterweck – H. Ringgren) (Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans 1986) 287–296.

Ross, A.P., A Commentary on the Psalms. II. (42–89) (Kregel Exegetical Library; Grand Rapids, MI: Kregel Academic 2013).

Shemesh, A., “‘The Holy Angels Are in Their Council’: The Exclusion of Deformed Persons from Holy Places in Qumranic and Rabbinic Literature,” Dead Sea Discoveries 4 (1997) 179–202. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1163/156851797X00047

Ulrich, E., “Canon,” Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls (eds. L.H. Schiffman – J.C. VanderKam) (New York: Oxford University 2000) I, 117–120.

Ulrich, E., “The Non-attestation of a Tripartite Canon in 4QMMT,” Catholic Biblical Quarterly 65 (2003) 202–214.

Ulrich, E. “Qumran and the Canon of the Old Testament,” The Biblical Canons (eds. J.-M. Auwers – H.J. de Jonge) (Bibliotheca ephemeridum theologicarum lovaniensium 163; Leuven: Leuven University Press 2003) 57–80.

Van der Kooij, A., “The Canonization of Ancient Books Kept in the Temple of Jerusalem,” Canonization and Decanonization. Papers presented to the International Conference of the Leiden Institute for the Study of Religions (LISOR) held at Leiden 9–10 January 1997 (eds. A. van der Kooij – K. van der Toorn) (Numen Book 82; Brill: Leiden 1998) 17–40. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1163/9789004379060_007

VanderKam, J.C., “Authoritative Literature in the Dead Sea Scrolls,” Dead Sea Discoveries 5/3 (1998) 382–402. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1163/156851798X00190

Waltner, J.H., Psalms (Believers Church Bible Commentary; Scottdale, PA: Herald 2006).

von Weissenberg, H., “4QMMT – Towards an Understanding of the Epilogue,” Revue de Qumrân 21 (2003) 29–45.

von Weissenberg, H., “Deuteronomy at Qumran and in 4QMMT,” Houses Full of All Good Things. Essays in Memory of Timo Veijola (eds. J. Pakkala – M. Nissinen) (Helsinki: Finnish Exegetical Society 2008) 520–537.

von Weissenberg, H., 4QMMT. Reevaluating the Text, the Function and the Meaning of the Epilogue (Studies on the Texts of the Desert of Judah 82; Leiden: Brill 2009). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1163/ej.9789004173798.i-268

Yamauchi, E., “ טהר ,” Theological Wordbook of the Old Testament. I. ‘Aleph – Mem (eds. R.L. Harris – G.L. Archer, Jr. – B.K. Waltke) (Chicago, IL: Moody Press 1980) 343–344.


Opublikowane
2022-01-27


Klukowski, M. J. (2022). The Alleged Reference to the Tripartite Division of Jewish Law in 4QMMT. The Biblical Annals, 12(1), 29–43. https://doi.org/10.31743/biban.12966

Michał Jarosław Klukowski  michal.klukowski@kul.pl
Katolicki Uniwersytet Lubelski Jana Pawła II https://orcid.org/0000-0003-1130-7406



Licencja

Creative Commons License

Utwór dostępny jest na licencji Creative Commons Uznanie autorstwa 4.0 Międzynarodowe.

1. Zgodnie z ustawą o prawie autorskim i prawach pokrewnych z dnia 4 lutego 1994r., autor publikacji przekazuje autorskie prawa majątkowe dotyczące składanego dzieła wydawcy czasopisma the Biblical Annals. Przeniesienie praw autorskich do składanego dzieła następuje na wszystkich polach eksploatacji, w szczególności tych wymienionych w art. 50 ustawy o prawie autorskim i prawach pokrewnych:

  • W zakresie utrwalania i zwielokrotniania utworu – wytwarzanie określoną techniką egzemplarzy dzieła, w tym techniką drukarską, reprograficzną, zapisu magnetycznego oraz techniką cyfrową.
  • W zakresie obrotu oryginałem albo egzemplarzami , na których dzieło utrwalono – wprowadzanie do obrotu, użyczenie lub najem oryginału albo egzemplarzy.
  • W zakresie rozpowszechniania utworu w sposób inny niż określony w pkt. 2 – publiczne wykonanie, wystawienie, wyświetlenie, odtworzenie oraz nadawanie i reemitowanie, a także publiczne udostępnianie utworu, aby każdy mógł mieć do niego dostęp w miejscu i czasie przez siebie wybranym.

2. Za zgodą redakcji czasopisma opublikowane artykuły w Biblical Annals mogą być przedrukowywane w innych publikacjach.

3. Redakcja publikuje teksty on line na licencji Creative Commons Uznanie autorstwa 4.0 - Międzynarodowe (CC BY 4.0).