The Human Being in Eschatology according to 1 Thess 5:23

Andrés García Serrano

Universidad Eclesiástica San Dámaso, Madrid , Hiszpania

Abstrakt

In his earliest letter, 1 Thessalonians, Paul addresses the issue of eschatology, leaving us a surprising anthropological description of the human being as “spirit, soul, and body.” Paul uses terms that are familiar to his readers. However, the first term in this threefold division of a human being, “spirit,” is the most emphasised, since the human being is no longer made up exclusively of “body and soul.” In this brief contribution, I will attempt to examine this term, “spirit,” as illuminated by its immediate narrative context and by other Pauline pneumatological texts and by its first reception. In this way, the reader will better understand the Pauline vision of the human being in the eschatology, in his ultimate destiny.

Słowa kluczowe:

Pauline anthropology, Pauline pneumatology, Pauline eschatology, Spirit, 1 Thess, history of reception

Primary Sources

Augustine, De civitate Dei (eds. B. Dombart – A. Kalb) (Corpus Christianorum: Series Latina 48; Turnhout: Brepols 1955).

Basil, De Spiritu Sancto (ed. B. Pruche) (Sources chrétiennes 17 bis; Paris: Cerf 2013).

Irenaeus, Adversus Haereses I (eds. A. Rousseau – L. Doutreleau) (Sources chrétiennes 264/2; Paris: Cerf 1979).

Irenaeus, Adversus Haereses III (eds. A. Rousseau – L. Doutreleau) (Sources chrétiennes 211/2; Paris: Cerf 2017).

Irenaeus, Adversus Haereses IV (eds. A. Rousseau et al.) (Sources chrétiennes 100/2; Paris: Cerf 2008).

Irenaeus, Adversus Haereses V (eds. A. Rousseau – L. Doutreleau – Ch. Mercier) (Sources chrétiennes 153/2; Paris: Cerf 2013).

Novacian, De Trinitate, in: Novatianus, Opera quae supersunt (ed. G.F. Diercks) (Corpus Christianorum: Series Latina 4, Turnhout: Brepols 1972) 11–78.

Tertullian, De Resurrectione Mortuorum, in: Tertullianus, Opera. II. Opera montanistica (eds. J.G.Ph. Borleffs et al.) (Corpus Christianorum: Series Latina 2; Turnhout: Brepols 1954) 921–1012.

Secondary Sources

Aróztegui Esnaola, M., La amistad del Verbo con Abraham según san Ireneo de Lyon (Analecta Gregoriana 294; Roma: Pontificia Università Gregoriana 2005).

Barclay, J.M.G., «Stoic Physics and the Christ-Event: A Review of Troels Engberg-Pedersen, Cosmology and Self in the Apostle Paul: The Material Spirit (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2010)», Journal for the Study of the New Testament 33 (2011) 406–414. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/0142064X11408001

Barclay, J.M.G., «Πνευματικός in the Social Dialect of Pauline Christianity», Pauline Churches and Diaspora Jews (ed. J.M.G. Barclay) (Wissenschaftliche Untersuchungen zum Neuen Testament 275; Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck 2011) 205–215. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1628/978-3-16-151774-7

Cerfaux, L., La Théologie de l’Église suivant Saint Paul (Unam Sanctam 54; Paris: Cerf 1965).

Del Colle, R., «Christian Theology: the Spirit», The Blackwell Companion to Paul (ed. S. Westerholm) (Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell 2011) 561–575. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/9781444395778.ch35

Dillon, J., «Plutarch and the Separable Intellect», Estudios sobre Plutarco. Misticismo y Religiones Mistéricas en la Obra de Plutarco (eds. A. Pérez Jiménez – F. Casadésus) (Madrid – Málaga: Clásicas 2001) 35–44.

Dunn, J.D.G., «1 Corinthians 15:45 – Last Adam, Life-Giving Spirit», Christ and Spirit in the New Testament. In Honor of Charles Francis Digby Moule (eds. B. Lindars – S.S. Smalley) (Cambridge: University Press 1973) 127–141.

Dunn, J.D.G., The Theology of Paul the Apostle (Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans 1998).

Dunn, J.D.G., «“The Lord, the Giver of Life”: The Gift of the Spirit as Both Life-giving and Empowering», The Spirit and Christ in the New Testament and Christian Theology. Essays In Honor of Max Turner (eds. I.H. Marshall – V. Rabens – C. Bennema) (Grand Rapids, MI – Cambridge, UK: Eerdmans 2012) 1–17.

Engberg-Pedersen, T., Cosmology and Self in the Apostle Paul (Oxford – New York: Oxford University Press 2010). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199558568.001.0001

Fabris, R., 1–2 Tessalonicesi (I libri Biblici. Nuovo Testamento 13; Milano: Paoline 2014).

Fadini, G., «Temporalità escatologica. San Paolo nella lettura di Heidegger», Studia Patristica 50 (2003) 357–375.

Fee, G.D., God’s Empowering Presence. The Holy Spirit in the Letters of Paul (Peabody, MA: Hendrickson 1994).

Feldmeier, R., «Christ As Creator: Paul’s Eschatological Reading of Gen 2:7 in 1 Cor 15:45», Dust of the Ground and Breath of Life (Gen 2:7). The Problem of a Dualistic Anthropology in Early Judaism and

Christianity (eds. J. van Ruiten – G.H. van Kooten) (Leiden – Boston, MA: Brill 2016) 127–137.

Franco Martínez, C.A., «El hombre cristiano – “espíritu, alma y cuerpo” – en 1 Tes 5,23», Concepto cristiano de hombre. 50º Aniversario de ordenación sacerdotal del Emm. Cardenal Primado (Semana de Teología Espiritual 17; Toledo: Centro de Estudios de Teología 1992) 45–74.

Frey, J., «Paul’s View of the Spirit in the Light of Qumran», The Dead Sea Scrolls and Pauline Literature (ed. J.-S. Rey) (Studies on the Texts of the Desert of Judah 102; Leiden – Boston, MA: Brill 2014) 237–260. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1163/9789004230071_013

García Serrano, A., «The Pauline Sense of the Expression “Now the Lord is the Spirit” (2 Cor. 3:17a)», The Expository Times 127 (2016) 479–487. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/0014524615615291

Gignac, A., «La mise en discours de l´humain chez saint Paul et ses interprétations anthropologiques en christianisme. Relecture de 1Co 6,12–20; 1Co 2,10–3,4 et 1Co 15,35–53», Théologiques 12 (2004) 95–124. DOI: https://doi.org/10.7202/011557ar

Harris, M.J., Prepositions and Theology in the Greek New Testament. An Essential Reference Resource for Exegesis (Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan 2012).

Hayward, R., «Adam, Dust, and the Breath of Life according to the Targumim of Gen 2:7», Dust of the Ground and Breath of Life (Gen 2:7). The Problem of a Dualistic Anthropology in Early Judaism and Christianity (eds. J. van Ruiten – G.H. van Kooten) (Leiden – Boston, MA: Brill 2016) 154–172. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1163/9789004334762_010

Heliso, D., «Divine Spirit and Human Spirit in Paul in the Light of Stoic and Biblical-Jewish Perspectives», The Spirit and Christ in the New Testament and Christian Theology. Essays in Honor of Max Turner (eds. I.H. Marshall – V. Rabens – C. Bennema) (Grand Rapids, MI – Cambridge, UK: Eerdmans 2012) 156–176.

Hultgren, S., «The Origin of Paul’s Doctrine of the Two Adams in 1 Corinthians 15:45–49», Journal for the study of the New Testament 25 (2003) 343–370. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/0142064X0302500306

Jewett, R., Paul’s Anthropological Terms. A Study of their Use in Conflict Settings (Arbeiten zur Geschichte des Späteren Judentums und des Urchristentums 10; Leiden: Brill 1971).

Ladaria, L. F., Antropología teológica (Serie I. Estudios 26. Teología I 13; Madrid – Roma: UPCM – Università Gregoriana 1983).

Lanzillotta, L.R., «Anthropological Views in Nag Hammadi: The Bipartite and Tripartite Conceptions of Human Being», Dust of the Ground and Breath of Life (Gen 2:7): The Problem of a Dualistic Anthropology in Early Judaism and Christianity (eds. J. van Ruiten – G.H. van Kooten) (Leiden – Boston, MA: Brill 2016) 136–153. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1163/9789004334762_009

Legarreta-Castillo, F. de J., The Figure of Adam in Romans 5 and 1 Corinthians 15. The New Creation and Its Ethical and Social Reconfigurations (Emerging Scholars; Minneapolis, MN: Fortress 2014).

Lemonon, J.-P., «L’Esprit Sant dans le corpus paulinien», Dictionnaire de la Bible. Supplement 60–61 (1986–1987) 240–320.

Levinson, J.R., Filled with the Spirit (Grand Rapids, MI – Cambridge: Eerdmans 2009).

Miller, P.L., «Greek Philosophical Dualism», Light Against Darkness. Dualism in Ancient Mediterranean Religion and the Contemporary World (eds. A. Lange et al.) ( Journal of Ancient Judaism Supplements; Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht 2011) 107–144. DOI: https://doi.org/10.13109/9783666550164.107

Mitchell, M. M., «Anthropological Hermeneutics: Between Rhetoric and Philosophy», Paul, the Corinthians and the Birth of Christian Hermeneutics (ed. M.M. Mitchell) (Cambridge – New York: Cambridge University Press 2010) 38–57.

Moule, C.F.D., «2 Cor. 3:18b, καθάπερ ἀπὸ κυρίου πνεύματος», Essays in New Testament interpretation (ed. C.F.D. Moule) (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press 1982) 227–234. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511897160.017

Nayak, I., «The Meaning of καταπτριζόμενοι in 2 Cor 3:18», Euntes Docete 55 (2010) 33–44.

Orbe, A., «El hombre ideal en la teología de San Ireneo», Gregorianum 43 (1962) 449–491.

Pereira Delgado, Á., Primera carta a los corintios (Comprender la Palabra 31B; Madrid: Biblioteca de Autores Cristianos 2017).

Pikaza, X., «Antropología paulina», Diccionario de san Pablo (ed. F. Fernández Ramos) (Burgos: Monte Carmelo 1999) 74–105.

Pikaza, X., «Espíritu Santo», Diccionario de san Pablo (ed. F. Fernández Ramos) (Burgos: Monte Carmelo 1999) 461–491.

Rabens, V., «Reframing Paul’s Anthropology in the Light of the Dichotomies of Pauline Research», Journal for the Study of the New Testament 40 (2018) 503–515. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/0142064X18769518

Rigaux, B., Saint Paul. Les Épitres aux Thessaloniciens (Paris – Gembloux: Gabalda – Duculot 1956).

Robinson, T.M., «The Defining Features of Mind-Body Dualism in the Writings of Plato», Psyche and Soma. Psysicians and Metaphysicians on the Mind-Body Problem from Antiquity to Enlightenment (eds. J.P. Wright – P. Potter) (Oxford: Clarendon 2002) 37–55.

Schrage, W., Der erste Brief an die Korinther. IV. 1 Kor 15,1–16,24 (Evangelisch-katholischer Kommentar zum Neuen Testament 7; Zürich – Braunschweig – Neukirchen-Vluyn: Neukirchener Verlag 2000).

Schweizer, E., «πνεῦμα, πνευματικός», Theological Dictionary of the New Testament (eds. G. Kittel – G. Friedrich; trans. G.W. Bromiley) (Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans 1971) VI, 332–455.

Still, T.D. – Wilhite, D.E. (eds.), Irenaeus and Paul (London: Bloomsbury 2020). DOI: https://doi.org/10.5040/9780567672896

Stuckenbruck, L.T., «The Interiorization of Dualism within the Human Being in Second Temple Judaism: the Treatise of the Two Spiritus (1QS III: 13- IV:26) in its Tradition-Historical Context», Light Against Darkness. Dualism in Ancient Mediterranean Religion and the Contemporary World (eds. A. Lange et al.) ( Journal of Ancient Judaism Supplements; Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht 2011), 145–168. DOI: https://doi.org/10.13109/9783666550164.145

Thiselton, A.C., 1 & 2 Thessalonians Through the Centuries (Blackwell Bible Commentaries; Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell 2011). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/9781444390124

Van Kooten, G.H., «The Anthropological Trichotomy of Spirit, Soul and Body in Philo of Alexandria and Paul of Tarsus», Anthropology in the New Testament and Its Ancient Context (Contributions to Biblical Exegesis and Theology 54; Leuven: Peeters 2010) 87–119.

Wedderburn, A.J.M., «Philo’s “Heavenly Man”», Novum Testamentum 15 (1973) 301–326. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1163/156853673X00132

White, D.E., «The Personal/Substantial Spirit of Prophecy: Irenaeus’s Use of Paul against the Heresies», Irenaeus and Paul (eds. T.D. Still – D.E. Wilhite) (London: Bloomsbury 2020) 89–112. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5040/9780567672896.ch-004


Opublikowane
2022-10-26


García Serrano, A. . (2022). The Human Being in Eschatology according to 1 Thess 5:23. The Biblical Annals, 12(4), 565–588. https://doi.org/10.31743/biban.13473

Andrés García Serrano  andresgs@sandamaso.es
Universidad Eclesiástica San Dámaso, Madrid https://orcid.org/0000-0003-4509-2423



Licencja

Creative Commons License

Utwór dostępny jest na licencji Creative Commons Uznanie autorstwa 4.0 Międzynarodowe.

  1. Zgodnie z ustawą o prawie autorskim i prawach pokrewnych z dnia 4 lutego 1994 r., Autor publikacji udziela Wydawcy czasopisma „The Biblical Annals” niewyłącznej i nieodpłatnej licencji na korzystanie z składanego do publikacji Utworu przez czas nieokreślony na nieograniczonym terytorium na następujących polach eksploatacji:
    a) w zakresie utrwalenia Utworu, zwielokrotnienia Utworu dowolną techniką (w tym m.in. drukiem oraz w formie zapisu elektronicznego) na wszelkich znanych nośnikach (w tym m.in. informatycznych, elektronicznych i poligraficznych) oraz we wszelkich systemach informatycznych (szczególnie typu Internet);
    b) w zakresie wprowadzenia Utworu do pamięci komputera, rozpowszechniania Utworu i egzemplarzy zwielokrotnienia Utworu, wprowadzenia do obrotu Utworu i egzemplarzy zwielokrotnienia Utworu;
    c) w zakresie publicznego wykonania, odtwarzania, wystawiania i wyświetlania Utworu, użyczaniu, najmu i dzierżawy Utworu oraz egzemplarzy zwielokrotnienia Utworu;
    d) w zakresie udostępniania, wprowadzanie do obrotu i rozpowszechniania Utworu i egzemplarzy zwielokrotnienia Utworu za pośrednictwem sieci informatycznych, w szczególności typu Internet, w tym promocji lub reklamy Utworu, czasopisma lub Wydawcy.
  2. Ponadto, Autor nieodpłatnie zezwala Wydawcy na korzystanie i rozporządzanie opracowaniami Utworów.
  3. Wydawca może udzielać sublicencji.
  4. Osoby trzecie z Utworów oraz z innych materiałów zawierających lub powstałych w oparciu o Utwory mogą korzystać zgodnie ze wzorcem licencji Creative Commons Uznanie autorstwa 4.0 (znanej również jako CC-BY).