Stoicka pneuma a Pawłowa koncepcja Ducha w Rz 8. Cz.2: Paweł i stoicy na temat Ducha – podobieństwa i różnice

Marcin Kowalski

Instytut Nauk Biblijnych KUL ,


In the second part of the article the author draws comparison between the Stoic and Pauline notion of pneuma. First, the stoic and cognate medical views on the Spirit/spirit are presented. According to them, pneuma functions as the principle of life, cognitive entity, element binding the cosmos, responsible for unifying various bodies, and passing the image of the father on his progeny. The stoic categories and phenomenology of pneuma are then applied to Rom 8. A notorious difficulty in distinguishing between the divine and human spirit, the cognitive, life-giving and unifying faculties of pneuma bespeak the similarity between the stoic and Pauline thought. Yet, the relationship seems to be rather formal and limited to the use of the same language. Paul goes well beyond both the stoic and Jewish concepts of pneuma, presenting the Spirit as introducing the believers into the community with God, enabling them to imitate Jesus, granting the life of resurrection, interceding for Christians and making them brothers and sisters. Two more functions of the Spirit, his abiding in the believers and his ability to imprint in them God’s image, open more promising venues for comparison between Paul and the stoics. The stoic idea of krasis and popular philosophical and medical views on procreation may help to understand how Paul and his audience imagined the Sprit dwelling in Christians and making them conform to the image of Christ. The article ends with a reflection on the applicability of the stoic notions of pneuma  to Rom 8.  

Słowa kluczowe:

Rz 8, pneuma, Duch/duch, moralność chrześcijańska, nowe życie, krasis, dzieci Boże

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Kowalski, M. (2018). Stoicka pneuma a Pawłowa koncepcja Ducha w Rz 8. Cz.2: Paweł i stoicy na temat Ducha – podobieństwa i różnice. The Biblical Annals, 8(4), 491–543. Pobrano z

Marcin Kowalski
Instytut Nauk Biblijnych KUL


  1. Zgodnie z ustawą o prawie autorskim i prawach pokrewnych z dnia 4 lutego 1994 r., Autor publikacji udziela Wydawcy czasopisma „The Biblical Annals” niewyłącznej i nieodpłatnej licencji na korzystanie z składanego do publikacji Utworu przez czas nieokreślony na nieograniczonym terytorium na następujących polach eksploatacji:
    a) w zakresie utrwalenia Utworu, zwielokrotnienia Utworu dowolną techniką (w tym drukiem oraz w formie zapisu elektronicznego) na wszelkich znanych nośnikach (w tym informatycznych, elektronicznych i poligraficznych) oraz we wszelkich systemach informatycznych (szczególnie typu Internet);
    b) w zakresie wprowadzenia Utworu do pamięci komputera, rozpowszechniania Utworu i egzemplarzy zwielokrotnienia Utworu, wprowadzenia do obrotu Utworu i egzemplarzy zwielokrotnienia Utworu;
    c) w zakresie publicznego wykonania, odtwarzania, wystawiania i wyświetlania Utworu, użyczaniu, najmu i dzierżawy Utworu oraz egzemplarzy zwielokrotnienia Utworu;
    d) w zakresie udostępniania, wprowadzanie do obrotu i rozpowszechniania Utworu i egzemplarzy zwielokrotnienia Utworu za pośrednictwem sieci informatycznych, w szczególności typu Internet, w tym promocji lub reklamy Utworu, czasopisma lub Wydawcy.
  2. Ponadto, Autor nieodpłatnie zezwala Wydawcy na korzystanie i rozporządzanie opracowaniami Utworów.
  3. Wydawca może udzielać sublicencji.
  4. Osoby trzecie z Utworów oraz z innych materiałów zawierających lub powstałych w oparciu o Utwory mogą korzystać zgodnie ze wzorcem licencji Creative Commons Uznanie autorstwa 4.0 (znanej również jako CC-BY).