The Tradition of the 364-Day Year in Second Temple Period Judaism

Michał Jarosław Klukowski

Katolicki Uniwersytet Lubelski Jana Pawła II , Poland


This article presents a 364-day year as a schematic year, being an innovation within Second Temple Judaism which emerged from Neo–Babylonian astrology in the Hellenistic period. The very first appearance of the year is found in the Enochic Astronomical Book (1 Enoch 72–82), after which it was set in the context of the covenant by an author of the Book of Jubilees. Scholars suggest that the year was transformed from a Babylonian ideal year (i.e. 360-day year) into the 364-day year by means of four phenomenal days added singly at the end of each quarter, so as to adjust the year to a sabbatical temporal system. In the Qumran scrolls, the 364-day year is a common denominator for all calendrical texts.


364-day year, schematic year, solar calendar, Qumran

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Klukowski, M. J. (2019). The Tradition of the 364-Day Year in Second Temple Period Judaism. Verbum Vitae, 35, 145–164.

Michał Jarosław Klukowski
Katolicki Uniwersytet Lubelski Jana Pawła II

Michał Klukowski, absolwent Wydziału Teologicznego Uniwersytetu Opolskiego, na którym otrzymał tytuł magistra nauk teologicznych, od 2013 r. doktorant Instytutu Nauk Biblijnych na Katolickim Uniwersytecie Lubelskim Jana Pawła II. W 2018 r. uzyskał kanoniczny stopień licencjata teologii w zakresie nauk biblijnych.


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