Paul’s "Fullness of Time” (Gal 4:4) and "Fullness of Times” (Eph 1:10)

Anna Rambiert-Kwaśniewska

Pontifical Faculty of Theology in Wrocław , Poland


The expression “the fullness of time/times” is problematic because it was used for the first time in all of Greek literature by Paul, the Apostle to the Nations. A similar expression can be found only in certain papyri, where “the completion of times” was the expression used to call, among others, the end of a loan period. The only key to understanding the connotation of “the fullness of time/times” is an in-depth analysis of the immediate textual contexts of both Galatians 4:4 and Ephesians 1:10, the two places where this novelty is found. This article is an attempt to interpret the “fullness of time/times” in Galatians 4:4 and Ephesians 1:10 (with the addition of Mark 1:15). Our conclusion is that in Galatians 4:4 “the fullness of time” should be considered as “the end of the domination of Law.” As for Ephesians 1:10, there are multiple valid proposals for explaining “the fullness of times”, and we have not limited ourselves to any one in particular.


fullness of time, fullness of times, πλήρωμα, καιρός, χρόνος, Galatians, Ephesians

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Rambiert-Kwaśniewska, A. (2020). Paul’s "Fullness of Time” (Gal 4:4) and "Fullness of Times” (Eph 1:10). Verbum Vitae, 38(1), 199–218.

Anna Rambiert-Kwaśniewska
Pontifical Faculty of Theology in Wrocław

Anna Rambiert-Kwaśniewska, doktor nauk teologicznych (PWT we Wrocławiu) i nauk humanistycznych (Uniwersytet Wrocławski), adiunkt w Katedrze Teologii Nowego Testamentu Instytutu Nauk Biblijnych PWT we Wrocławiu oraz wykładowca Uniwersytetu Wrocławskiego, laureatka stypendiów krajowych (MNiSW) i międzynarodowych (Fundacja Rothschildów; rządu państwa Izrael), autorka książek, Terminologia tekstylna w Biblii Hebrajskiej i Septuagincie. Włókna i tkaniny (Rozprawy i Studia Biblijne 51; Warszawa: Vocatio 2019), Pierwszy i Drugi List do Tesaloniczan (Biblia Impulsy. Nowy Testament 13; Katowice: Księgarnia św. Jacka 2019), oraz kilkudziesięciu tekstów naukowych i popularnonaukowych.


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