The Hour of Jesus’ Disciples (Jn 16:32; 18–19) as an Opportunity for the Revelation of the Master


Abstract

The term “the hour of trial” in the Fourth Gospel is most often associated with the Passion of the Lord. The present work reminds us that Jesus’ disciples lived through and reacted to this difficult and pivotal experience as well, both during the arrest of the Master (cf. Jn 16:32) and later, when the persecution of Christians comes (cf. Jn 16:2.4.21). This article presents six types of attitudes exhibited by Jesus’ disciples as described in the Passion Narrative (Jn 18–19). In addition, from a  Christological perspective, it demonstrates how the disciples’ various responses become a “mirror” for Jesus’ own revelation on this occasion. Christ gives his revelation not only through his own verba et facta, but also through interaction with his disciples, or in the juxtaposition (σύγκρισις) of his own attitude with their behavior. In this way, they become the locus theologicus of Jesus’ revelation. Thus the hour of the disciples becomes an occasion in which the revelation of the Master resounds even more forcefully and in a more understandable way.


Keywords

Fourth Gospel; Passion Narrative; discipleship; the hour of Jesus; the hour of Jesus’s disciples; revelation of Jesus

Aretius, B., In Novum Testamentum Domini nostri Iesu Christi Commentarii Doctissimi Benedicti Aretii Bernensis Theologi praestantissimi, facili perspicuaque methodo conscripti (Genevae: Chouët 1618).
Bacher, W., „R. Travers Herford’s «Christianity in Talmud and Midrash»”, Jewish Quarterly Review 17 (1904) 171-183.
Bauckham, R., „Nicodemus and the Gurion Family”, Journal of Theological Studies 47 (1996) 1-37.
Beck, D.R., The Discipleship Paradigm. Readers and Anonymous Characters in the Fourth Gospel (Biblical Interpretation Series 27; Leiden – New York – Köln: Brill 1997).
Bennema, C., „Nicodemus: In the Twilight Zone”, Encountering Jesus. Character in the Gospel of John, wyd. 2. (red. C. Bennema) (Minneapolis, MN: Fortress 2014 Studies) 147-160.
Beutler, J., „Die Stunde Jesu im Johannesevangelium”, Studien zu den johanneischen Schriften (red. J. Beutler) (Stuttgarter biblische Aufsatzbände 25; Stuttgart: Katholisches Bibelwerk 1998) 317-322.
Blass, F. – Debrunner, A. – Rehkopf, F., Grammatik des neutestamentlichen Griechisch, wyd. 18 (Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht 2001).
Boismard, M.-É., „Un procédé rédactionnel dans le quatrième évangile: la Wiederaufnahme”, L’Évangile de Jean. Sources, rédaction, théologie (red. M. de Jonge) (Bibliotheca Ephemeridum Theologicarum Lovaniensium 44; Gembloux – Leuven: Duculot – Leuven University Press 1977) 235-241.
Borrel, A., „Els Dotze després de Jesus”, Revista Catalana de Teologia 29 (2004) 289-304.
Brant, J.-A.A., John (Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Academic 2011).
Brown, R.E., „«Other Sheep Not of This Fold»: The Johannine Perspective on Christian Diversity in the Late First Century”, Journal of Biblical Literature 97 (1978) 5-22.
Brown, R.E., The Community of the Beloved Disciple (New York – Mahwah, NJ: Paulist Press 1979).
Bruner, F.D., The Gospel of John. Commentary (Grand Rapids, MI – Cambridge: Eerdmans 2012).
Burge, G.M., John. From Biblical Text … to Contemporary Life (The NIV Application Commentary 4; Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan 2000).
Buscemi, A.M., L’uso delle preposizioni nella Lettera ai Galati (Studium Biblicum Franciscanum Analecta 17; Jerusalem: Franciscan Printing Press 1987).
Carroll, J.T. – Green, J.B., „The Death of Jesus in the Gospel According to John”, The Death of Jesus in Early Christianity (red. J.T. Carroll et al.) (Peabody, MA: Hendrickson 1995) 82-109.
Chennattu, R.M., Johannine Discipleship as a Covenant Relationship (Peabody, MA: Hendrickson 2006).
Chrostowski, W., Między Synagogą a Kościołem. Dzieje św. Pawła (Kraków: Wydawnictwo „M” – Ząbki: Apostolicum 2015).
Collins, R.F., These Things Have Been Written. Studies on the Fourth Gospel (Louvain Theological and Pastoral Monographs 2; Louvain: Peeters – Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans 1990).
Coulot, C., Jésus et le disciple. Étude sur l’autorité messianique de Jésus (Études bibliques. Nouvelle Série 8, Paris: Gabalda 1987).
Crimella, M., Marta, Marta! Quattro esempi di “triangolo drammatico” nel “grande viaggio di Luca” (Studi e Ricerche. Sezione biblica; Assisi: Cittadella 2009).
Crimella, M., „Dal maestro alle comunità. Le comunità di Marco, Luca e Giovanni”, Parola Spirito e Vita 61 (2010) 149-159.
Culpepper, R.A., Anatomy of the Fourth Gospel. A Study in Literary Design (Philadelphia, PA: Fortress 1983).
Culpepper, R.A., „Nicodemus: The Travail of New Birth”, Character Studies in the Fourth Gospel. Narrative Approaches to Seventy Figures in John (ed. S.A. Hunt – D.F. Tolmie – R. Zimmermann) (Wissenschaftliche Untersuchungen zum Neuen Testament 2/314; Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck 2013) 249-259.
Daise, M.A., Feasts in John. Jewish Festivals and Jesus’ “Hour” in the Fourth Gospel (Wissenschaftliche Untersuchungen zum Neuen Testament 2/229; Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck 2007).
Destro, A. – Pesce, M., Come nasce una religione. Antropologia ed esegesi del vangelo di Giovanni (Percorsi) (Roma: Laterza 2000).
Dietzfelbinger, C., Das Evangelium nach Johannes, wyd. 2 (Zürich: Theologischer Verlag 2004) II.
Draper, J.A., „What Did Isaiah See? Angelic Theophany in the Tomb in John 20:11-18”, Neotestamentica 36 (2002) 63-76.
Dschulnigg, P., Jesus begegnen. Personen und ihre Bedeutung im Johannesevangelium (Theologie 30; Münster – Hamburg: LIT 2000).
Dubisz, S. (red.), Wielki słownik języka polskiego. II. h-n (Warszawa: PWN 2018).
Fabris, R., Giovanni. Traduzione e commento, wyd. 2 (Roma: Borla 2003).
Ferraro, G., L’“ora” di Cristo nel Quarto Vangelo (Aloisiana 10; Roma: Herder 1974).
Ferraro, G., „Cristo di fronte alla sua «ora»”, Parole di Vita 29 (1984) 196-208.
Ferraro, G., „La terminologia temporale (l’«ora» e il «giorno» di Cristo) nel commento di Origene al quarto vangelo”, Orientalia Christiana Periodica 60 (1994) 363-398.
Ferraro, G., Lo Spirito e l’“ora” di Cristo. L’esegesi di San Tommaso d’Aquino sul Quarto Vangelo (Città del Vaticano: Libreria Editrice Vaticana 1996).
Feuillet, A., „L’heure de Jésus et le signe de Cana. Contribution a l’étude de la structure du quatrième évangile”, Ephemerides Theologicae Lovanienses 36 (1960) 5-22.
Filtvedt, O.J., „Revisiting Nicodemus’s Question in John 3:9”, The Journal of Theological Studies 70 (2019) 110-140.
Flusser, D., „The Jewish-Christian Schism (Part I/II)”, Judaism and the Origins of Christianity (red. D. Flusser ) (Jerusalem: Magnes 1988) 617-634, 635-644.
Flusser, D., „The Isaiah Pesher and the Notion of Twelve Apostles in the Early Church”, Judaism of the Second Temple Period. I. Qumran and Apocalypticism (red. D. Flusser) (Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans – Jerusalem: The Hebrew University Magnes Press – Jerusalem Perspective 2007) 305-326.
Galizzi, M., „È giunta l’ora che sia glorificato il figlio dell’uomo (Gv 12,23)”, Parole di Vita 29 (1984) 216-225.
Gloer, W.H., „«Come and see»: Disciples and Discipleship in the Fourth Gospel”, Perspectives on John. Methods and Interpretation in the Fourth Gospel (red. R.B. Sloan – M.C. Parson) (National Association of Baptist Professors of Religion Special Studies Series 11; Lewiston, ME – Queenston – Lampeter: Mellen 1993) 269-301.
de Goedt, M., „Un Schème de Révélation dans le Quatrième Évangile”, New Testament Studies 8 (1962) 142-150.
Grochowski, Z., „I discepoli di Gesù nell’ora della prova (Gv 18–19) come luogo di rivelazione del Maestro”, The Biblical Annals 3/1 (2013) 67-92.
Grochowski, Z., Il discepolo di Gesù nell’ora della prova (Gv 18–19), luogo di rivelazione del Maestro (Studia Biblica Lublinensia 13; Lublin: Wydawnictwo KUL 2015).
Grochowski, Z., „Kogut w Biblii z uwzględnieniem jego funkcji narracyjnej pełnionej w Ewangeliach”, Verbum Vitae 32 (2017) 255-284.
Grochowski, Z., „Cinque discepoli, radunati ai piedi della croce, accompagnano Gesù morente come il vero e autentico Maestro (Gv 19,24h-27)”, Studia Ełckie 21/1 (2019) 11-26.
Grochowski, Z., „Dobry Pasterz, pojmany w Ogrójcu, daje życie swoim uczniom (J 10,1-18; 18,1-14)”, Idźcie i głoście nowe życie w Chrystusie (red. Z. Grochowski – J. Kręcidło – W. Linke) (Warszawa: Wydawnictwo Naukowe UKSW 2019) 141-176.
Grochowski, Z., „Nicodemus. A Disciple Liberated by the Cross of the Christ from the Darkness of Fear and Disbelief”, The Biblical Annals 10/4 (2020) 637-676.
Gryglewicz, F. – Mędala, S. – Chmiel, J., „Tradycja św. Jana”, Wstęp do Nowego Testamentu (red. R. Rubinkiewicz) (Poznań: Pallotinum 1996) 447-538.
Hanimann, J., „A propos de «l’Heure de Jésus» dans le quatrième évangile”, Nouvelle Revue Théologique 98 (1976) 544-546.
Hare, D.R.A., The Theme of Jewish Persecution of Christians in the Gospel According to St. Matthew (Society for New Testament Studies Monograph Series 6; Cambridge: University Press 2005).
Heil, J.P., Blood and Water. The Death and Resurrection of Jesus in John 18–21 (Catholic Biblical Quarterly Monograph Series 27; Washington, DC: Catholic Biblical Association of America 1995).
Hendriksen, W., Exposition of the Gospel According to John. Two Volumes Complete in One, wyd. 20 (New Testament Commentary 4; Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Academic 2007).
Horbury, W., „The Benediction of the Minim and Early Jewish-Christian Controversy”, Journal of Tamil Studies 33 (1982) 19-61.
Horbury, W., „Early Christians on synagogue prayer and imprecation”, Tolerance and Intolerance in Early Judaism and Christianity (red. G.N. Stanton – G.G. Stroumsa) (Cambridge: University Press 1998) 296-317.
van der Horst, P.W., „The Birkat ha-Minim in Recent Research (1993)”, Hellenism – Judaism – Christianity. Essays on Their Interaction (red. P.W. van der Horst) (Contribution to Biblical Exegesis and Theology 8; Kampen: Kok Pharos 1994) 99-111.
Jacobs, A.S., „Jews and Christians”, The Oxford Handbook of Early Christian Studies (red. S.A. Harvey – D.G. Hunter) (Oxford: Oxford University Press 2008) 169-185.
de Jonge, M., Jesus. Stranger from Heaven and Son of God. Jesus Christ and the Christians in Johannine Perspective (Society of Biblical Literature Sources for Biblical Study 11; Montana, MT: Scholars Press 1977).
Katz, S.T., „Issues in the Separation of Judaism and Christianity after 70 C.E.: a Reconsideration”, Journal of Biblical Literature 103 (1984) 43-76.
Kimelman, R., „Birkat Ha-Minim and the Lack of Evidence for an Anti-Christian Jewish Prayer in Late Antiquity”, Jewish and Christian Self-Definition. II. Aspects of Judaism in the Graeco-Roman Period (red. E.P. Sanders – A.I. Baumgarten – A. Mendelson) (Philadelphia, PA: Fortress 1981) 226-244.
Klink III, E.W., The Sheep of the Fold. The Audience and Origin of the Gospel of John (Society for New Testament Studies Monograph Series 141; Cambridge – New York: Cambridge University Press 2007).
Kl’uska, B., Uczeń ikoną Chrystusa. Studium egzegetyczno-teologiczne Mowy Pożegnalnej J 13,31–16,33 (Studia Biblica Lublinensia 3; Lublin: Wydawnictwo KUL 2007).
Koester, C.R., „Theological Complexity and the Characterisation of Nicodemus in John’s Gospel”, Characters and Characterisation in the Gospel of John (red. C.W. Skinner) (London: Clark 2013) 165-181.
Köstenberger, A.J., „Jesus as Rabbi in the Fourth Gospel”, Bulletin for Biblical Research 8 (1998) 97-128.
Köstenberger, A.J., The Mission of Jesus and the Disciples According to the Fourth Gospel. With Implications for the Fourth Gospel’s Purpose and the Mission of the Contemporary Church (Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans 1998).
Kręcidło, J., „Tożsamość Umiłowanego Ucznia w czwartej Ewangelii”, Collectanea Theologica 78/3 (2008) 45-58.
Kręcidło, J., Honor i wstyd w interpretacji Ewangelii. Szkice z egzegezy antropologicznokulturowej (Lingua Sacra. Monografie 1; Warszawa: Verbinum 2013).
Kubiś, A., „Zechariah 6:12-13 as the Referent of γραφή in John 2:22 and 20:9. A Contribution to Johannine Temple-Christology”, The Biblical Annals 2 (2012) 153-194.
Kubiś, A., „Rhetorical Syncrisis in the Johannine Presentation of Jesus and Peter”, The Biblical Annals 7/4 (2017) 487-529.
Lausberg, H., Retoryka literacka. Podstawy wiedzy o literaturze (tł., red., wstęp A. Gorzkowski) (Bydgoszcz: Homini 2002).
Lieu, J., „Temple and Synagogue in John”, New Testament Studies 45 (1999) 51-69.
Lincoln, A.T., The Gospel According to Saint John, wyd. 2 (Black’s New Testament Commentary 4; Peabody, MA: Hendrickson 2006).
Manns, F., „L’évangile de Jean, réponse chrétienne aux décisions de Jabne”, Studii Biblici Franciscani Liber Annuus 30 (1980) 47-92.
Manns, F., Ecce Homo. Una lettura ebraica dei Vangeli (Torino: Lindau 2011).
Manns, F., „Encore une fois «Jésus et le disciple»”, Didascalia. Lisbôa 41 (2011) 29-52.
Maranesi, P., La verità di Nicodemo. Racconto evangelico di un cammino di fede (Assisi: Cittadella Editrice 2019).
Marchadour, A., I personaggi del Vangelo di Giovanni. Specchio per una cristologia narrativa (tł. R. Pusceddu) (Bologna: Dehoniane 2007).
Marguerat, D. – Bourquin, Y., Per leggere i racconti biblici. La Bibbia si racconta. Iniziazione all’analisi narrativa (tł. M. Zappella) (Roma: Borla 2001).
Mariano, C., Tetelestai. Il significato della morte di Gesù alla luce del compimento della Scrittura in Gv 19,16b-37 (Quaderni della Rivista di scienze religiose 14; Roma: Viverein 2010).
Martín-Moreno, J.M., Personajes del Cuarto Evangelio (Biblioteca de Teología Comillas 7; Madrid: Universidad Pontificia Comillas 2002).
Mateos, J. – Barreto, J., El Evangelio de Juan. Análisis lingüístico y comentario exégetico (Lectura del Nuevo Testamento 4; Madrid: Cristiandad 1979).
Matera, F.J., „Jesus before Annas. John 18,13-14.19-24”, Ephemerides Theologicae Lovanienses 66 (1990) 38-55.
Mędala, S., Ewangelia według świętego Jana. II. Rozdziały 13–21. Wstęp, przekład z oryginału, komentarz (Nowy Komentarz Biblijny. Nowy Testament 4/2; Częstochowa: Edycja Świętego Pawła 2010).
Moloney, F.J., „La preghiera dell’ora di Gesù (Gv 17)”, Parola Spirito e Vita 3 (1981) 156-167.
Montanari, F., Vocabolario della lingua greca (Torino: Loescher 1995).
Moreno, R., „El discípulo de Jesucristo, según el evangelio de S. Juan”, Estudios Biblicos 30 (1971) 269-311.
Morris, L., The Gospel According to John. Revised Edition (New International Commentary on the New Testament; Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans 1995).
Morrison, C.D., „The «Hour of Distress» in Targum Neofiti and the «Hour» in the Gospel of John”, Catholic Biblical Quarterly 67 (2005) 590-603.
Neirynck, F., „The «Other Disciple» in Jn 18,15-16”, Ephemerides Theologicae Lovanienses 51 (1975) 113-141.
Neirynck, F., „L’epanalepsis et la critique littéraire. À propos de l’Évangile de Jean”, Ephemerides Theologicae Lovanienses 56 (1980) 303-338.
O’Day, G.R., Revelation in the Fourth Gospel. Narrative Mode and Theological Claim (Philadelphia, PA: Fortress 1986).
Pesce, M., „Discepolato gesuano e discepolato rabbinico. Problemi e prospettive della comparazione”, Religion (Vorkonstantinisches Christentum: Leben und Umwelt Jesu; Neues Testament [Kanonische Schriften und Apokryphen]) (red. W. Haase) (Aufstieg und Niedergang der römischen Welt 25/1; Berlin – New York, NY: De Gruyter 1982) 351-389.
Pierri, R. – Grochowski Z., „Una portinaia non ostile”, Collectanea Christiana Orientalia 8 (2011) 229-235.
de La Potterie, I., La passion de Jésus selon l’évangile de Jean. Texte et Esprit (Lire la Bible 73; Paris: Cerf 1986).
Powell, M.A., What Is Narrative Criticism. A New Approach to the Bible (London: SPCK1993).
du Rand, J.A., „Perspectives on Johannine Discipleship According to the Farewell Discourses”, Neotestamentica 25 (1991) 311-325.
Resseguie, J.L., The Strange Gospel. Narrative Design and Point of View in John (Biblical Interpretation 56; Leiden – Boston – Köln: Brill 2001).
Riesner, R., Jesus als Lehrer. Eine Untersuchung zum Ursprung der Evangelien-Überlieferung, wyd. 2 (Wissenschaftliche Untersuchungen zum Neuen Testament 2/7; Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck 1984).
Rijksbaron, A., „A Question of Questions: Peusis, Erôtêsis and (Longinus] περὶ ὕψους 18.1”, Mnemosyne, Fourth Series 56 (2003) 733-737.
Rosik, M., „Nazarejczycy czy heretycy? W kwestii Birkat ha-minim”, Więcej szczęścia jest w dawaniu aniżeli w braniu. Księga Pamiątkowa dla Księdza Profesora Waldemara Chrostowskiego w 60. rocznicę urodzin (red. B. Strzałkowska) (Warszawa: Stowarzyszenie Biblistów Polskich 2011) III, 1275-1288.
Rosik, M., Kościół a Synagoga (30 –313 po Chr.). Na rozdrożu (Wrocław: Chronicon 2016).
Sabbe, M., „The Arrest of Jesus in Jn 18,1-11 and its Relation to the Synoptic Gospels. A Critical Evaluation of A. Dauer’s Hypothesis”, L’Évangile de Jean. Sources, rédaction, théologie (red. M. de Jonge) (Bibliotheca Ephemeridum theologicarum Lovaniensium 44; Gembloux: Duculot – Leuven: Leuven University Press 1977) 203-234.
Safrai, C., „Jesus and His Disciples: The Beginnings of Their Organization”, Immanuel 24 (1990) 95-108.
Sanders, J.N. – Mastin B.A., A Commentary on the Gospel According to St. John (Harper’s New Testament Commentaries; Peabody, MA: Hendrickson 1988).
Schnackenburg, R., Das erste Wunder Jesu (Joh. 2,1-11) (Freiburg: Herder 1951).
Schnackenburg, R., „Jünger, Gemeinde, Kirche im Johannesevangelium”, Das Johannesevangelium. III. Kommentar zu Kap. 13–21 (red. R. Schnackenburg) (Herder Theologisches Kommentar zum Neuen Testament 4; Freiburg – Basel – Wien: Herder 1975) 231-245.
Schoeps, H.-J., Jewish Christianity. Factional Disputes in the Early Church (Philadelphia PA: Fortress 1969).
Segalla, G., Evangelo e vangeli. Quattro evangelisti, quattro vangeli, quattro destinatari (La Bibbia nella storia 10; Bologna: Dehoniane 1993).
Segovia, F.F., „«Peace I leave with You; My Peace I give to You»: Discipleship in the Fourth Gospel”, Discipleship in the New Testament (red. F.F. Segovia) (Philadelphia, PA: Fortress 1985) 76-102.
Senior, D., „The Death of Jesus and the Meaning of the Discipleship”, The Death of Jesus in Early Christianity (red. J.T. Carroll et al.) (Peabody, MA: Hendrickson 1995) 234-255.
Serra, S., Contributi dell’antica letteratura giudaica per l’esegesi di Giovanni 2,1-12 e 19,25-27 (Scripta Pontificiae Facultatis Theologicae Marianum 31; Roma: Herder 1977).
Sigal, P., „An Inquiry into Aspects of Judaism in Justin’s Dialogue with Trypho”, Abr-Nahrain 18 (1979) 74-100.
Siker-Gieseler, J.S., „Disciples and Discipleship in the Fourth Gospel: A Canonical Approach”, Studia Biblica et Theologica 10 (1980) 199-227.
Sikora, A.R., „Uczeń, którego Jezus miłował, świadkiem i nauczycielem wiary”, Poznańskie Studia Teologiczne 26 (2012) 87-105.
Sikora, A.R., „Zobaczył i uwierzył” (J 20,8). Droga wiary umiłowanego ucznia Jezusa w ujęciu egzegezy teologicznej (Studia i Materiały 150; Poznań: Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Adama Mickiewicza 2012).
Ska, J.L., „Our Fathers Have Told Us”. Introduction to the Analysis of Hebrew Narratives (Subsidia Biblica 13; Roma: Pontificio Istituto Biblico 2020).
Smyth, H.W., Greek Grammar (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press 1984).
Szczepański, W., Bóg – Człowiek w opisie Ewangelistów (Kraków: Wydawnictwo Księży Jezuitów 1924).
Teppler, Y.Y., Birkat haMinim. Jews and Christians in Conflict in the Ancient World (Texte und Studien zum Antiken Judentum 120; Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck 2007).
Van der Merwe, D.G., „Towards a Theological Understanding of Johannine Discipleship”, Neotestamentica 31 (1997) 339-359.
Vignolo, R., Personaggi del Quarto Vangelo. Figure della fede in San Giovanni, wyd. 2 (Milano: Glossa 2006).
Viteau J., Étude sur le grec du Nouveau Testament. Le verbe: Syntaxe des propositions (Paris: Librairie Émile Bouillon 1893).
von Wahlde, U.C., The Gospel and Letters of John. II. Commentary on the Gospel of John (Eerdmans Critical Commentary; Grand Rapids, MI – Cambridge: Eerdmans 2010).
Whitenton, M.R., „The Dissembler of John 3: A Cognitive and Rhetorical Approach to the Characterization of Nicodemus”, Journal of Biblical Studies 135 (2016) 141-158.
Whitenton, M.R., Configuring Nicodemus. An Interdisciplinary Approach to Complex Characterization (Library of New Testament Studies 549; London: Clark 2019).
Wilson, S.G., Related Strangers: Jews and Christians 70-170 C.E. (Minneapolis, MN: Fortress 1995).
Witczyk, H., „Historia w ewangelicznych świadectwach o Męce i Śmierci Jezusa”, Jezus i Ewangelie w ogniu dyskusji. Od H. Reimarusa do T. Polaka (red. J. Kudasiewicz – H. Witczyk) (Biblioteka „Verbum Vitae” 2; Kielce: Verbum 2011) 225-288.
Wróbel, M.S., „Znaczenie formuły Birkat ha-Minim w procesie rozdziału Synagogi od Kościoła”, Collectanea Theologica 78/2 (2008) 65-80.
Zevini, G., „L’«ora» di Gesù nel vangelo di Giovanni”, Parole Spirito e Vita 36 (1997) 153-169.
Zevini, G., „L’«ora» di Gesù nel Vangelo di Giovanni alla luce dell’«ora storica» della Gerusalemme d’oggi”, Ecce ascendimus Jerosolyman (Lc 18,31). Miscellanea di studi offerti per il 75° dello Studentato Teologico Salesiano in Terra Santa e il Centenario dell’Ispettoria salesiana del Medio Oriente (red. F. Mosetto) (Biblioteca di Scenze Religiose 184; Roma: Libreria Ateneo Salesiano 2003) 105-123.
Zlotnick, D. – Kutscher, E.Y., The Tractate “Mourning”. Śĕmahot. Regulations Relating to Death, Burial, and Mourning. Translated from the Hebrew. With Introduction and Notes by Dov Zlotnick. With Hebrew Text Vocalized by E. Y. Kutscher (Yale Judaica Series 17; New Haven, CT: Yale University Press 1966).
Zumstein, J., L’évangile selon saint Jean (13–21) (Commentaire du Nouveau Testament 4b; Genève: Labor et Fides 2007).

Published : 2020-12-21


Grochowski, Z. (2020). The Hour of Jesus’ Disciples (Jn 16:32; 18–19) as an Opportunity for the Revelation of the Master. Verbum Vitae, 38(1), 149–177. https://doi.org/10.31743/vv.10443

Zbigniew Tadeusz Grochowski  zbigniewgrochowski@gmail.com
Uniwersytet Kardynała Stefana Wyszyńskiego. Wydział Teologiczny  Poland
https://orcid.org/0000-0002-1785-5684

Ks. Zbigniew Grochowski, prezbiter diecezji elbląskiej, doktor nauk biblijnych i archeologii, absolwent rzymskiego Pontificium Institutum Biblicum (licencjat) i jerozolimskiego Studium Biblicum Franciscanum (doktorat), adiunkt w Katedrze Egzegezy Nowego Testamentu Zakładu Nauk Biblijnych Wydziału Teologicznego Uniwersytetu Kardynała Stefana Wyszyńskiego w Warszawie; zajmuje się pismami Janowymi i tematem uczniów Jezusa; wykładowca w WSD w Elblągu (a w latach 2013-2016 także w Telewizyjnym Uniwersytecie Biblijnym TV Trwam), członek zwyczajny Stowarzyszenia Biblistów Polskich i Stowarzyszenia Ex-Alunni PIB; opublikował monografię Il discepolo di Gesù nell’ora della prova (Gv 18-19), luogo di rivelazione del Maestro (Studia Biblica Lublinensia 13; Lublin: Wydawnictwo KUL 2015).






Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.

Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:

(1) Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License (CC license Attribution-NoDerivatives 4.0 International) that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal. 

(2) Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.

(3) Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).